June 2000

Copper-Nickel Alloys - Marine Supreme: Other References

Copper Applications in Metallurgy of Copper & Copper Alloys

By Vin Callcut

Copper-Nickel Fabrication: handling, welding, properties, resistance to corrosion and biofouling, important applications.Published by CDA Inc. as A7020-XX-99, by the Nickel Development Institute (NiDI) as Publication No. 12014 and by CDA-UK as Publication No. 139.

Heat Exchangers and Piping Systems from Copper Alloys - Commissioning, Operating and Shutdown, M. Jasner, M. Hecht and W. Beckman, published by KM-Europa Metal AG, Osnabruck.

Copper-Nickel Alloys for seawater corrosion resistance and antifouling - a state of the art review, C.A. Powell and H.T. Michels, Corrosion 2000, NACE March 2000 (© NACE).

M.S. Parvizi, A. Aladjem and J.E. Castle, "Behavior of 90-10 Cupronickel in Sea Water," International Material Reviews, 33 4 (1988) pp 164-199

Copper Nickel Alloys - Properties and Applications, Joint Publication of the Copper Development Association (UK) and the Nickel Development Institute, TN 30.

K.P. Efird and D. Anderson, Seawater Corrosion of 90-10 and 70-30 Copper Nickel Alloys - 14 Year Exposure, Materials Performance, (141) (1975).

W.W. Kirk, T.S. Lee and R.O. Lewis, Corrosion and Marine Fouling Characteristics of Copper Nickel -Alloys, CDA Conference Copper in Marine Environments, Paper 16, April 1985.

A.H. Tuthill, Guidelines for the Use of Copper Alloys in Seawater, Materials Performance, 26 9 (1987) pp 12-22.

P.T. Gilbert, Corrosion Resisting Properties of 90/10 Copper-Nickel-Iron Alloys with Particular Reference to Offshore Oil and Gas Applications, British Corrosion Journal, 14 1 (1979) pp 20-25.

J.L. Manzolillo, EW. Thiele and A.H. Tuthill, Trans. Soc. Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Journal, 84 (1976).

E. Schorsch, R.T. Bicicchi and J.W. Fu, Hull Experiments on 24-Knot RO/RO Vessels Directed Toward Fuel-Saving Applications of Copper-Nickel, Trans. SNAME 86 (1978).

Copper-Nickel Sheathing Study - Phase H, Two Year Service Performance of Test Panels on the Arco Texas, U.S. Dept. of Transportation Maritime Administration, Contract MA-81-SAC-10074, May 1984.

W. Kirk, Evaluation of Critical Seawater Hydrodynamic Effects of Erosion Corrosion of CuNi, INCRA Report 396, 1987.

P. Drodten and H. Pircher, Behavior of CuNi10FelMn-Clad Ship Plates in Seawater, Werkstoffe und Korrosion, 41(1990) pp 59-64.

E.V. Creamer, Splash Zone Protection of Marine Structures, Offshore Technology Conference, Paper No. 1274, Houston, Texas, 1970.

B.B. Moreton, Report on the Protection of Offshore Steel Structures by a Metallurgical Method, 9th Annual Conference Petroleum Division ASME," New York, N.Y., September 1954.

W.W. Kirk, Metallic Sheathing for Protection of Steel in Seawater, Materials Performance, 26 9 (1987) pp 23-28.

R.W. Ross, Jr. and D.B. Anderson, Protection of Steel Piling in Marine Splash and Spray Zones, - The Metallic Sheathing Concept, Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling, Antibes, France, June 1976, pp 461-473.

H. Arup, Cathodic Current Demand of Copper-Nickel Sheathed Piling, Danish Corrosion Centre, INCRA Project No. 371.

J.A. Ellor & G.A. Gehring, Jr., Galvanic Corrosion of Copper-Nickel Sheathed Steel Piling, Ocean City Research Corp., INCRA Project No. 368. March 1987.

S. Husa, Stray Current Corrosion, Marintec, INCRA Project No. 372, September 1986.

C.J. Gaffoglio, Concepts in Corrosion and Biofouling Control Using Copper-Nickel, Proceedings of the First OMAE Specialty Symposium on Offshore and Arctic Frontiers, New Orleans, Louisiana, Feb. 23-27, 1986.

D.G. Melton, Review of Five-Year Exposure Data for CuNi-Sheathed Steel Pilings, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 1991, pp 221-233.

S.J. Pikul and B.S. Phull, Thirteen Year Results of Long-Term Copper-Nickel Sheathed Piling Studies, Annual Report, ICA Project No. 358, June 1998.

S.J. Pikul and B.S. Phull, Splash Zinc Corrosion of C70600 After Ten Years Exposure in an Oceanfront Environment, Annual Report, ICA Project No. 399, June, 1998.

W.R. Barger, L.D. Downer, J.E. Brown and T.R. Gaul, Economic Evaluation - Use of Copper-Nickel Alloy for Sheathing of Offshore Structures, Exxon Production Research Company, INCRA Project No. 359, September 1984, pp 21-41

R. Carruthers, The Use of 90/10 Copper-Nickel Alloy as a Splash Zone Cladding, Paper 6, Proceedings of CDA Conference on Copper-Alloys in Marine Environments, (Birmingham, England) April 1985.)

R.F. Engel & J.P. Ray, Bio-Shield: An Anti-fouling System for Offshore Platforms that Works!, Proceedings of Ocean Engineering and the Environment Conference, San Diego, California, United States, Vol. 1, 1985, p. 62.

R.M. Kain, Performance and Fundamentals of Engineering Alloys in Seawater and the Marine Atmosphere, Presented at Innovations Marine Materials and Technologies Conference, La Spezia, Italy; October 1-3, 1992.

R.A. Perkins and D.L. Marsh, Thermal-Sprayed Copper-Nickel Coatings on Steel, Final Report on INCRA Project 376, August 1990.

K.E.J. Miller, Copper-Nickel Composites for Long-Term Anti-Fouling: A Review of Recent Applications, Proceedings of the Conference on Marine Engineering with Copper-Nickel, p. 95 (London, England: The Institute of Metals, 1988).

J.W. Brockbank, Avonclad-a Flexible Neoprene/Copper-Nickel Material for Long Term Antifouling; a Review of Manufacturing, Tests and Recent Installations, Proceedings of Marine Engineering with Copper-Nickel, London, Published Institute of Materials, April 1988.

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