KEY TO SYMBOLS
- Web Page
- Ampacities and Mechanical Properties of Rectangular Copper Busbar
- See Properties/Standards
- Copper Busbar Design Guide
- See Properties/Standards
- A6007: High-Efficiency Copper-Wound Transformers Save Energy and Dollars
Examines the economics of dry-type transformers. Stresses importance of life-cycle costs. Charts rapid payback and annual energy savings that can be achieved using high-efficiency transformers.
- MotorMaster+ (Software is available by request at AMO Tools Help Desk)
Downloadable software analyzes and compares initial and life-cycle costs and features of actual motors (1 to 600 hp) sold in the USA and catalogued by the U.S. Department of Energy. Enables energy-efficient motor purchase choices, modeling of motor inventories and helps with rewind vs. purchase decisions. Includes nameplate data for thousands of non-residential motors.
- A6008: One Wire Size Up Means Big Savings
llustrates how installing wire one size larger than required by the National Electrical Code can lower electrical energy costs and yield quick paybacks while increasing the flexibility of the installation.
- A6003: A Systems Approach to Calculating Energy Savings
Provides sample calculations to determine energy savings in each component of one complete motor circuit comprised of a transformer, wiring and a motor. Shows the contributions of each and demonstrates how changing one element of the system synergistically decreases the energy losses in the other elements.
Case Studies on Energy Efficiency:
- A6188: Copper Connects Microgrids with Smart Grids: Copper Usage Is Key to Modern Electric Grids
- [2.3 Mb]
Microgrids are making the world more efficient and less reliant on huge, ineffective power systems.
- A6186: Copper in Motor Repair Facilities
- [280 Kb]
Three motor repair facilities provide their best practices on how they utilize copper in motor repair and in selling new motors to replace older, less-efficient models.
- A6176: Solar Energy Lifts Off at Airports Around the Globe
- [3.5 Mb]
Airports are a perfect location for solar PV installations. Multiple airports around the world have already installed solar energy systems, which require copper to function efficiently and reliably. This case study examines the solar airport trend and its potential impact on the copper market.
- A6141: Part I: Creating a Motor Inventory, Repair/Replace Guidelines
- [1.80 Mb]
This three-part series focuses on reducing energy cost and downtime by instituting a motor management plan. Part I, addresses the motor management plan, and the beginning steps: creating a motor inventory, and motor repair/replace guidelines.
- A6148: Part II: Motor Failure Policies and Purchasing Specifications
- [1.15 Mb]
This three-part series focuses on reducing energy cost and downtime by instituting a motor management plan. Part II, addresses the general aspects of motor management plan, including the first steps of creating a motor inventory and guidelines for motor repair and replacement.
- A6150: Part III: Repair Specifications, and Preventive and Predictive Maintenance
- [1.55 Mb]
This three-part series focuses on reducing energy cost and downtime by instituting a motor management plan. Part III, the last in the three part series, addresses repair specifications and preventive and predictive maintenance.
- A6154: Emerging Motor Technologies
- [1.69 Mb]
An overview of copper's role in helping three emerging motor technologies become more efficient. Industry experts, motor manufacturers and end users all contribute to provide the reader with factual information that should be of interest to those working with and purchasing motors.
- A6132: 100 Miles of Copper Cable Connects, Protects 4.6-MW Photovoltaic Solar Farm
Solar photovoltaics are one aspect of sustainable electric generation, and Tucson Electric Power is on the leading edge of this industry. The Springerville Generating Station solar PV installation is a prime example. This case study explores the PV installation in detail, including extensive use of copper to make the project possible.
- A1356: Copper-Rotor Motors + Variable Frequency Drives Maximize Savings at a Brass Mill
- [885 Kb]
This summary describes the results of a copper-rotor motor evaluation program undertaken by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) at the Rome, New York, brass mill of Revere Copper Products, Inc.
- A1357: Copper-Rotor Motors + Variable Frequency Drives Maximize Savings at Water Treatment Plant
- [1.10 Mb]
This summary describes the results of a copper-rotor motor evaluation program undertaken by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) at the Albany County Sewage District's (ASCD) North Plant in Menands, New York.
- A6129: Bowling Pin Manufacturer Fights Rising Energy Costs With Premium-Efficiency Motors
- [1.62 Mb]
QubicaAMF strikes just the right score with NEMA Premium© motors. Located in a high energy cost region, this famous bowling pin manufacturer found high efficiency motors were part of their energy solution.
- A6120: Driving America to Energy Independence, 30-mph Wind + Plug-In Hybrids = 100 mpg
- [230 Kb]
Austin Energy had an unusual idea: convert and store nighttime wind energy to daytime gasoline. This article explores the concept behind Plug-in Partners, and how Austin Energy is approaching the idea of utilizing Texas' abundant wind energy.
- A6118: Mineral Producer Installing 150 Copper-Rotor Motors Rising Energy Costs Drive Upgrades, Rapid Payback Expected
- [290 Kb]
This New York State mining concern decided to fight increasing utility charges by going beyond premium motor efficiency, long before the law required the change. 150 new cast copper rotor motors are being installed in place of both NEMA Premium and EPAct-efficiency motors.
- A6106: Shaw Industries Demands NEMA Premium ® Efficiency Motors for Savings, Reliability
- [540 Kb]
The world's largest tufted broadloom carpet manufacturer specifies NEMA Premium motors where applicable; but their requirements for special purpose motors also means the highest efficiency possible where NEMA Premium doesn't apply.
- A6105: Bryant University Saves Energy Cuts Costs With All-Copper Systems
- [580 Kb]
This R.I. university not only demands high efficiency motors, but has lowered operating costs and increased reliability by specifying copper-only wiring and high efficiency copper-wound transformers.
- A6100: Transformer Manufacturer Uses Only Copper
- [455 Kb]
Copper is a very small part of the initial cost of a transformer. Pennsylvania Transformer Technologies points to the smaller size per kVA, allowing less lamination steel (meaning less no-load losses), less insulation, less oil, smaller heat exchangers, etc. Combined with high reliability demanded by their customers, copper is a better choice for winding material that provides OEM's with easier assembly and better manufacturability, and their customers with lower life cycle cost.
- A6101: Copper and Wind Energy: Partners For a Clean Environment
- [360 Kb]
Wind energy is growing at a very fast pace due to increased interest in renewable resources as the cost of fossil fuels rises, and copper plays a vital role in making that happen. Austin Energy is one utility that is taking dramatic steps to ensure that wind, and other renewables, are a big part of their energy mix.
- A6046: Cummins Engine Company Saves $200,000/Year with Premium Efficiency Motors
Explains how Cummins was able to win the U.S. Department of Energy's Captain's Command Award in 1999 for energy efficiency while saving $200,000 - savings that wouldn't have been possible without the proper use of copper.
- A6030: Energy-Efficient Transformer Yields 156% ROI
By applying life-cycle cost analysis, Herman Miller, Inc. achieved a seven-month payback period on the incremental cost of purchasing the most efficient transformer for their facility. Their Green Building/Facility Design Group uses lowest-total-owning cost analysis to reduce energy costs throughout the company. The practice can help your company also.
- A6089: Brass Mill Cuts Costs with NEMA Premium ® Motors
- [315 Kb]
At one of the nation's largest brass mill, if a 50-hp (or smaller) motor fails, it's replaced with NEMA Premium. If it's larger and the cost of a repair or rewind is 50% or more of a replacement, a new motor is purchased. That policy is ensuring 18-month, or less, payback for Outokumpu Copper Products. See how this motor plan, along with copper-wound transformers, can help your company.
- A6092: Kodak Focuses on NEMA Premium ® Motors
- [226 Kb]
A world leader in photography, Kodak is also a leader in adoption of NEMA Premium motors. With over 70,000 motors in operation at any given time, Kodak has adopted a "Total Motor Program" that specifies NEMA Premium or better efficiency every time a general purpose motor of 20 hp or below fails, and evaluation for replacement above that threshold. Kodak has already saved over $250,000 per year in energy costs, and reduced emissions in the process, while increasing reliability.
- A6097: Cool idea! Motor Upgrades Help Cut HVAC Energy Costs at Emory University
- [555 Kb]
A combination of a sound motor replace/repair policy along with a sophisticated monitoring system have contributed to large operating savings at this prestigious university. Working closely with their motor service shop, Emory installs NEMA Premium ® motors whenever possible, while adhering to EASA guidelines for repairs.
- A6090: Skating Arena Cuts Energy Costs with Premium-Efficiency Motors
One would not imagine part time use and only a 28% duty cycle would be a typical application for high efficiency motors. Yet, despite this low duty factor, replacement of older, but perfectly functioning, standard efficiency motors with NEMA Premium ® models did produce a 4-month payback for a New England arena.
- A6080: Weyerhaeuser Policy Calls for Premium-Efficiency Motors and Transformers
If you're going "green," do it right. In 1995, Weyerhaeuser established a company-wide policy to reduce energy consumption and costs and to minimize the impact of its huge power requirement on the environment. Replacement of 2,800 motors per year and another 525 upgrades per year to the best motors available actually reduces their total cost of ownership and increases the reliability and service life of their equipment.