KEY TO SYMBOLS
- Web Page
- A4117: Copper: The Right Choice for Water Service Lines
- [5 Mb]
Lead was once the preferred material for water service line installations. Copper and other materials have since taken its place in new construction, as well as in routine replacement. Discover why copper is now the most widely used plumbing material in the developed world.
- A4073: Copper-Tube Corrosion in Domestic-Water Systems
- [3.5 Mb]
Show how to identify and mitigate corrosion of copper tube and fittings in domestic waters. The seven sources of corrosion are discussed: solder-flux-induced pitting attack, hydrogen-sulfide-induced pitting attack, erosion corrosion, cuprosolvency, concentration-cell corrosion, chemistry-related hot- and cold-water pitting. Reprint. BSE Boiler Systems Engineering, June 2005.
- A4015: Copper Tube Handbook
- [web-interactive version 23 Mb] | [print version 26 Mb]
The most up-to-date guide for specifying and installing copper tube for plumbing, heating, air conditioning and refrigeration. Shows soldering and brazing techniques.
(66 pgs.) 1 free (add'l $1.00 ea)
- A4005: Copper Tube Sizing Calculator and Handbook
For design of plumbing systems, fire sprinklers, etc. Slide rule calculates tube diameter, pressure loss, developed length, flow rate, friction loss and flow velocity.
(5 pgs. and a calculator) 1 free (add'l $5.00 ea)
- A4111: Close Your Eyes and Breathe Deeply
- [447 Kb]
An article reprint from Medical Construction & Design September/October 2015 magazine. Healthcare facilities take great care to provide the purest possible inhalation gases like, oxygen, medical air, and nitrous oxide to name just a few. This article provides methods for delivering pure, odor-free gases.
- 1094: Conditions Contributing to Underground Copper Corrosion
Identifies the possible situations in which copper tube or pipe may be subject to external corrosion underground. Identifies measures to prevent such attack. Reprint, AWWA Journal, August 1984.
- A1070: Corrosion by Potable Waters in Building Systems and Water Treatment to Mitigate Corrosion of Copper Plumbing Systems
- [5.18 Mb]
Two articles reprinted from Materials Performance, August 1993. The first tells how to avoid pitting attack (cold and hot water), concentration cell, dezincification, erosion and galvanic corrosion. Materials selection, system design and chemical treatment techniques are examined. The second article provides an analysis of water treatment techniques used sucessfully by water utilities or dwelling owners, including the addition of hydrating line, caustic soda, ash or a silicate to the distributed water.
- A4018: Guide Specifications on Plumbing
- [340 Kb]
Contains standards, references and specifications on copper and copper alloy piping system products and materials. Provides information on installation methods and procedures and minimum recommendations on pipe/tube fittings and joints for specific applications.
- A4116: Health Effects and Safe Drinking Water: The Real Story
- [288 Kb]
Despite the fact that copper is regulated by the USEPA Lead and Copper Rule, its consumption is necessary for human health. The ingestion of lead, on the other hand, poses real, chronic health risks.
- A1162: Occurrence and Control of Corrosion in Copper Water Tube Systems
- [410 Kb]
Describes North American and European standards covering tubes, fittings, solders, fluxes and guidelines for assembly of copper tube water systems and the low incidence of corrosion-related failures. Discusses responsibility of water purveyors to provide noncorrosive waters to their customers. Reprint, Proceedings of the 1994 Water Quality Technology Conference, November 1994.
- A1095: Overcoming Corrosion Concerns in Copper Tube Systems
- [755 Kb]
Describes proper materials selection, system design and operations, correct workmanship practices and effective water treatment alternatives for mitigating corrosion concerns while satisfying the 1991 Lead-Copper Rule Amendment to the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act. Reprint, Materials Performance, September 1996.
- A1061: Pitting Corrosion of Copper in Cold Potable Water Systems
- [280 Kb]
Examines the influence of water chemistry on cold-water pitting of copper tube. Explains how this low-incidence problem can be mitigated by simply raising the water's pH and lowering free carbon dioxide to acceptable levels. Reprint, Materials Performance, October 1995.
- A4119: The False Initial Cost Economy
- [88 Kb]
An analysis of the cost comparisons for replacing lead service lines is examined based on the life cycle cost and the total cost of ownership.
- A1062: Water- and Soil-Side Corrosion of Copper Water Service Lines
- [3.50 Mb]
Study results of 10- to 70-year underground copper water service lines throughout Billings, Montana, show copper has excellent resistance to indigenous soils and water. Reprint, Materials Performance, March 1995.
- A4118: Who is Choosing Copper Now
- [1.20 Mb]
Copper has been the preferred material for underground water service lines for the past 50 years. Learn why municipalities continue to use copper and why many select this age-old metal for their lead service line replacement projects.